Major Categories in the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
Categories in the Cognitive Domain: (with Outcome-Illustrating
- Knowledge of terminology; specific facts; ways and means of dealing
with specifics (conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and
categories, criteria, methodology); universals and abstractions in a field
(principles and generalizations, theories and structures):
(here) defined as the remembering (recalling) of appropriate, previously
- defines; describes; enumerates; identifies; labels; lists; matches;
names; reads; records; reproduces; selects; states; views.
- Comprehension: Grasping (understanding) the meaning of
- classifies; cites; converts; describes; discusses; estimates; explains;
generalizes; gives examples; makes sense out of; paraphrases; restates (in
own words); summarizes; traces; understands.
- Application: The use of previously learned information in new and
concrete situations to solve problems that have single or best answers.
- acts; administers; articulates; assesses; charts; collects; computes;
constructs; contributes; controls; determines; develops; discovers;
establishes; extends; implements; includes; informs; instructs;
operationalizes; participates; predicts; prepares; preserves; produces;
projects; provides; relates; reports; shows; solves; teaches; transfers;
- Analysis: The breaking down of informational materials into their
component parts, examining (and trying to understand the organizational
structure of) such information to develop divergent conclusions by identifying
motives or causes, making inferences, and/or finding evidence to support
- breaks down; correlates; diagrams; differentiates; discriminates;
distinguishes; focuses; illustrates; infers; limits; outlines; points out;
prioritizes; recognizes; separates; subdivides.
- Synthesis: Creatively or divergently applying prior knowledge and
skills to produce a new or original whole.
- adapts; anticipates; categorizes; collaborates; combines; communicates;
compares; compiles; composes; contrasts; creates; designs; devises;
expresses; facilitates; formulates; generates; incorporates; individualizes;
initiates; integrates; intervenes; models; modifies; negotiates; plans;
progresses; rearranges; reconstructs; reinforces; reorganizes; revises;
structures; substitutes; validates.
- Evaluation: Judging the value of material based on personal
values/opinions, resulting in an end product, with a given purpose, without
real right or wrong answers.
- appraises; compares & contrasts; concludes; criticizes; critiques;
decides; defends; interprets; judges; justifies; reframes; supports.
Other Domains for Educational Objectives:
- Affective Domain (emphasizing feeling and emotion)
- Psychomotor Domain (concerned with motor skills)
Anderson, L. & Krathwohl, D. A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and
Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York:
Online Bloom Bibliography
Bloom Benjamin S. and David R. Krathwohl. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives:
The Classification of Educational Goals, by a committee of college and
university examiners. Handbook I: Cognitive
Domain. New York, Longmans, Green, 1956.
Bloom, Robert S., Stating Educational Objectives in Behavioral Terms, Nursing
Forum 14(1), 1975, 31-42.
Gronlund, Norman E., Stating Behavioral Objectives for Classroom Instruction.
New York: Macmillan, 1970.
Harrow, A., A Taxonomy of the Psychomotor Domain. A guide for Developing
Behavioral Objectives. New York: McKay, 1972.
Jonassen, D., W. Hannum, and M. Tessmer, "Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives." Chapt. 12 of Handbook of Task Analysis Procedures. New York:
Krathwohl, David R., Benjamin S. Bloom, and Bertram B. Masia, Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook II:
Affective Domain. New York: David McKay Co., Inc., 1964.
Hunkins (UW), Teaching Thinking Through Effective Questioning (1989), and
write learning outcomes", by Alan Jenkins (Oxford Brookes University) &
Dave Unwin (Birkbeck College London)
- "Learning outcomes are statements of what is expected that a student will
be able to DO as a result of a learning activity. For this new version of the
Core Curriculum the activity will be following your materials on WWW or
listening to a lecture based on them, but it could also be a laboratory class,
even an entire study programme."