Habit Reversal Training
Habit Reversal Training is a multi-stage process. First, the individual is made aware the behaviors in question (e.g., hair-pulling or a particular tic) and any premonitory urges (i.e., a preceding urge to perform the behavior). Second, the individual is taught to replace the presenting behavior with a competing behavior. Third, relaxation training is utilized to diminish the presenting behavior as well as the competing replacement behavior.
Habit Reversal Training for Trichotillomania
Trichotillomania is a disorder characterized by the chronic compulsion of pulling out one's own hair, and it is associated with noticeable hair loss, distress, and impairment. Individuals suffering from trichotillomania often feel a compulsion to engage in a ritual associated with their hair-pulling (e.g., a need to bite the hair or root, tactile stimulation of lips or face with the hair shaft, a need to pull the hair in a particular way, searching for hairs that do not feel right or look right). Trichotillomania is a chronic and often disabling illness with a lifetime prevalence of 0.6-2.5%.
One leading approach in the treatment of trichotillomania, Habit Reversal Training (HRT), is a form of psychotherapy with proven efficacy. Habit Reversal Training involves several components: awareness training, development of competing responses to hair pulling, and building and sustaining motivation and compliance. Awareness training is based on the premise that increased awareness of hair pulling incidents facilitates better self-control. The goal of awareness training is to identify each hair-pulling incident and any preceding sensations. At the heart of HRT is competing response training. The therapist and patient choose a competing response to hair pulling (i.e., a behavior that is incompatible with hair pulling), and the therapist demonstrates the competing response and its proper implementation. The patient then practices the competing response, contingent upon hair-pulling warning signs or a simulated hair-pulling, while receiving the therapist's feedback.
In addition, having helpful family/social support can be an important asset in treatment and this is why we tend to include parents (or a support person) of patients in our sessions. The therapist will teach the support person about trichotillomania and train him or her to help the patient with the treatment implementation. For example, the support person may learn to praise correct implementation of a competing response and to prompt the correct use of a competing response.
Habit Reversal Training for Tic Disorders
Tics refer to involuntary, repetitive movements of the body or detectable vocalizations that are not typical behaviors for the context in which they occur. Tic disorders represent a class of interrelated conditions, which include the presence of isolated or co-occurring motor and vocal tics (e.g., Tourette's Syndrome). Individuals with tic disorder are at risk for experiencing social, emotional, and behavioral impairment in a variety of domains.
One of the most effective non-pharmacological treatments for tic disorders is Habit Reversal Training. Habit Reversal Training involves several components aimed at increasing tic awareness, developing competing responses to tics, and building and sustaining motivation and compliance. Awareness training is based on the premise that increased awareness of tic behaviors facilitates better self-control. A competing response is a response physically incompatible with the targeted tic. When the ability to reliably detect tic urges has been demonstrated, the person uses a competitive response at each occurrence of the urge and holds the response until the urge passes. The use of anxiety management techniques for tic control can also be implemented. It is based on the observation that increases in anxiety lead to concomitant increases in tic frequency, intensity, and duration. Deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and imagery are the most frequently used anxiety management techniques for tic disorders.
We also offer expert pharmacological interventions for tic disorders and, when clinically appropriate, a combination of medication management and Habit Reversal Training. Often, we will provide other forms of psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, to help youth with tics deal with feelings of distress related to having tics.